As a result of their approach, THERS has made some important initial discoveries:

  • The soft X-ray intensity and duration time of flares represent an important factor in the generation of SEP events.
  • The first flare generated in sunspot regions with a low number of flares is likely to cause an increase in SEP. As flares tend to occur continuously at certain sunspots, common methods to predict flare occurrence have been based on historical data of the last flare. However, with the latest wide learning approach, THERS suggest that the prediction of the first flare, which occurs in the sunspot region where the flare activity of the previous day was relatively weak, represents an important factor in the prediction of SEP events, providing a new guideline for the future research and development of space weather forecasts.
  • The numerical model constructed in the research can enable prediction of the increase of SEP with the same accuracy as that of conventional prediction methods, with room for further accuracy in future, three-dimensional magnetic field model data around sunspots.